How does the brain work?

The brain is the most complex organ of man. After all, he is responsible for the work of all organs, as well as for many complex processes, such as memory, thinking, feelings, speech. In addition, the human brain is responsible for consciousness. Let's see how the brain works.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system. It is located in the skull box, which protects it from damage and exposure to temperature. An adult human brain weighs an average of 1.4 kg, apparently it looks like a big walnut. The brain consists of gray and white substances, which consist of nerve cells and nerve fibers. Neurons send and receive electrical signals to all organs of the body through a network of nerve endings. The brain and the back of the brain, as well as nerve endings throughout the body constitute the human nervous system.

Anatomically, the brain consists of three main parts - the brain stem, hemisphere, the cerebellum. In addition, there are endocrine glands in the brain, such as the thalamus and hypothalamus. Let us examine the functions and structure of each part in order to better understand how the human brain works.

Brain hemispheres

The hemispheres of the brain are its largest part. They make up about 90% of the total. The hemispheres divide the brain into two approximately equal parts, connected by a dense bridge - the corpus callosum. The structure of the hemisphere consists of gray and white substances. Gray matter makes up the surface of the brain and consists of complexly arranged nerve cells that generate electrical impulses. And the white matter that is inside the hemispheres is made up of nerve fibers. They transmit signals throughout the body.

The complex arrangement of the cerebral hemispheres allows them to be responsible for the many functions of the human body, most of which are related to higher mental activity, for example, memory, thinking, etc. Physiologically, this is a clear division into zones that are apparently not visible. Each zone is responsible for certain functions of a person. You can get acquainted in detail with what the hemispheres are responsible for, you can in one of our articles - "What do the hemispheres of the brain answer for?".


The cerebellum is located in the back of the brain, just below the neck. The cerebellum receives motor signals from the hemispheres, after which it sorts them, specifies and sends signals to specific muscles or tendons.The cerebellum is responsible for the movements, both of individual muscles, and for the overall smoothness and coordination of human movements.

Brain stem

The brain stem is located at the base and connects the brain with the spinal cord. The brainstem is responsible for vital automatic processes, such as heartbeat, digestion, body temperature, respiration, etc.

Hypothalamus and thalamus

The hypothalamus is an endocrine gland, which is responsible for many complex functions and manifestations of a person. For example, he controls hunger, sleep, thirst, and strong emotions - anger, joy, fear. The hypothalamus is located at the top of the brain stem.

The thalamus, in turn, is the coordinator of all human glands. Having a size no larger than a pea, the thalamus regulates the release of all hormones in the body.

How the brain works: the inner process

At first glance, the work of the brain seems extremely simple. Nerve impulses come in one hemisphere, where they are read and processed. Then, they are sent to the right part of the body. By the way, the signals from the right side of the body are sent to the left hemisphere.

In general, it can be said that the brain is an organ that controls all processes of the body.With the help of a neural network, he directs the body, like a conductor, indicating that which organ needs to be done.

The human neural network consists of nerve cells - neurons. In their structure they have several entrances - dendrites, and one exit - axon. It can be said that a neuron receives many signals, sums them up and outputs one common output signal, which is transmitted further. Human neurons have the ability to "learn" - in the course of life, they can change their threshold sum of signals. When neurons increase the sum of signals, human learning occurs, and when the sum of signals decreases, the person forgets or loses skill.

Now you know how the brain works. It is believed that the brain is many times more powerful than any of the created computers. In the human brain, there are about 100 billion nerve cells that are constantly dying and appearing, and also tend to develop.

In order for the brain to constantly evolve, it needs to work.