How to build a country house?
If you have purchased a summer cottage and thought about how to build a country house, then you should find out the various nuances of its construction. The first step is to choose materials. Today the building materials market offers a huge space for the flight of fancy. Therefore, the choice of a particular type of material will directly depend on your ideas regarding the design of the house. As for tools, their set completely depends on what method you will use when building a house. However, you will definitely need:
- shovels, shovel and bayonet
- welding machine
- concrete mixer
- Master OK
The process of building a country house
We will understand how to build a country house from the very beginning. As is known, the construction of any premises begins with the selection of the foundation. It is necessary to take into account the presence of groundwater and the depth of freezing. The best bases are semi-rock and rock, dry clay soils, coarse sands.Unsuitable grounds are silty sand mixed with silt or clay, as well as peatlands. When unsuitable soils should be replaced with sand pads of coarse sand. The foundation should be at a depth of at least 0.5 m. In the case where the groundwater level is 2 m below the freezing depth, the foundation should be laid to a depth of not less than 70 cm from the ground level. But if the groundwater level is located closer to the depth of freezing than 2 m, and also reaches or exceeds it, it is necessary to ensure that the depth of the foundation is not less than the calculated depth of freezing. The most acceptable foundations are foundations of coarse or rubble. 3 parts of sand and one part of water should be added to one part of the cement. After that, the mixture must be thoroughly mixed, lay the stone layers up to 30 cm in a trench, pour the solution and tamp. At 15 cm below the floor level and above the ground level, waterproofing should be arranged, consisting of two layers of roofing material or any other waterproof material.
Now let's learn how to make a country house with a well-designed cellar design.In an open pit it is necessary to arrange a base of red brick, rubble stone, crushed stone with a thickness of about 40 cm. Then it must be compacted and poured with concrete. Then you should put two layers of ruberoid. The walls should be laid directly on the sloping ruberoid. Seams of ruberoid cloths should be overlapped. Then you need to complete the interior decoration of the cellar. To do this, you need to upholster the walls with a special metal mesh for plaster, after which you can plaster the walls.
They should start at a distance of 30 cm from ground level. In this case, protruding more than 5 cm from the plane of the wall parts of the foundation, it is necessary to provide slopes to avoid wet walls. Frame walls with slab insulation made from straw or reed can be whitewashed, smeared with clay, sheathed with asbestos tile, plastered or revetted with bricks.
Such a task as to insulate a country house is one of the most important in the construction of a small room. It is carried out using bulk, plate and roll materials. For filling, you can use various materials, for example, expanded clay, slag, pumice stone, vermiculite, shavings, sawdust.As for organic materials, they should be pre-treated with antiseptic substances to protect against fungi and parasites. An important component of the insulation of wooden walls is a vapor barrier. For this it is necessary to use rolled materials, for example, plastic film, glassine. It should be noted that the vapor barrier should always be laid under the inner wall cladding.
To give the interior a spectacular look, you should use natural wood, brickwork or lime whitewash. If you finish the ceiling and walls with wallpaper, then you need to conduct a more thorough preparation. It should also be borne in mind that wallpaper is very capricious in operation: they burst when dried and peel off when dampened, which is not practical for a room that may not be heated.
If you decide to make the floor of unplaned boards, after its installation, you should smear all the cracks with clay. Then lay any kind of insulation, and on top we put a clean floor with fitting and rallying. Also here you can use vapor barrier and foam to separate the sub floor from the clean.
In the case when the attic is done over the veranda or terrace, the floor should also be warmed.Warming the attic you need to make a horizontal hemming ceiling at a height of 2.2 m. This is necessary to create an additional thermal barrier at the top of the roof. To prevent premature destruction of the house, it is better not to do a loggia in the attic.
Of course, trying to decide how to equip a country house, one cannot but pay attention to the fact that country houses are not always electrified. So, for heating can be used solid-fuel stoves, made of bricks, stoves and fireplaces. In addition, it is also possible to organize local water heating. For this purpose it is necessary to use small-capacity heating boilers or to install coils into the furnace. It is convenient to use gas-balloon installations for cooking, which, by the way, can also be used to heat water in the heating system.
How to make a country house
The structure, as well as the land plot, may have a different status. Making the construction of the property must be considered as a kind of structure, and the type of land.