How do mushrooms grow?
Mushrooms, like plants and animals, are a gigantic independent kingdom of living nature. They occupy a certain intermediate position between them, as they combine the features characteristic of these two taxons. By the way of their nutrition, carried out by suction of food, the lack of mobility and unlimited growth, they are certainly close to the plants, to the kingdom of which they were ranked until recently. But at the same time, mushrooms have some significant differences - they are chlorophyll-free and cannot use solar energy to create organic substances from carbon dioxide and water, as all plants do. For nutrition, they need, like animals, only ready-made organic substances.
The world of fungi is very extensive and diverse, on our planet they already number about one hundred thousand species, but still not all of them have been studied and described by scientists - mycologists. Where does such a huge number of species come from, you ask. The thing is that mushrooms are not only boletus mushrooms, wild mushrooms and butter mushrooms well known to us from childhood, but also numerous microscopic single-celled species, all kinds of yeasts and molds.But such mushrooms are a topic for a separate story, but now we’ll talk in more detail about mushrooms in their usual sense, consider their structure, find out how mushrooms grow and how they multiply.
What we used to call a mushroom is actually only a small part of it, the fruit body that serves for reproduction, it is there that microscopic spores ripen, which will eventually give rise to new fungi. Each fruit body consists of a cap and a leg. If you look at the hat more closely, then from its bottom you can see either a soft sponge consisting of many tubes, or a fan of thin plates. Depending on this, the fungi are divided into spongy and lamellar.
Fruit bodies are formed on the mycelium, which is located in the soil. It is from a scientific point of view that it is a real mushroom. Mycelium, also called mycelium, is formed by thin, delicate branching filaments (hyphae), resembling a thick, grayish-whitish web.
How and why grow mushrooms
If nothing interferes with the mycelium, it spreads from the germination point of the spore raywise in all directions and densely penetrates the substrate.As it develops, it can penetrate deep into the soil or concentrate near its surface. Speaking about how many mushrooms grow, it is necessary to clarify what exactly we are talking about. Mycelium of all higher fungi is perennial, it grows slowly, from the beginning of spring to late autumn, in winter its growth completely stops. The fruit bodies of most higher fungi are very short-lived, they arise and die in one or two weeks - a period quite long enough for disputes to develop and mature.
Many mushrooms, such as white or aspen mushrooms, form single fruit bodies or grow in small groups, but it also happens that the mushrooms grow in a circle consisting of several dozen fruit bodies. The diameter of such a circle, although it would be more correct to say - rings, sometimes reaches five or more meters. Previously, people did not know what caused this, and were inclined to attribute such a miracle to the machinations of forest spirits or tricks of witches. The explanation of these mysterious "witch circles" was very simple - the mycelium growing from the center in all directions with the same speed, died off in the center of old age, and continued to bear fruit along the edges, so the gossips or Russula grew as if someone had planted them in a circle. The spectacle was pretty curious.If it is of interest to you, then the video of how mushrooms grow in the form of a “witch circle” can be easily found on the Internet if you wish.