How to make a sample?
The sample is the participants of the future research process. They are selected so that, based on the answers, it is possible to make a conclusion about the needs and characteristics of the society around them. Gender, age, addiction of participants depend on the object of study. That is why, before making a sample, it is necessary to clearly formulate for yourself the basic concepts of research work, its theoretical model. Determine the purpose, theme, objectives, subject, object of the work to be performed and hypothesis - the possible conclusion that you are going to confirm or refute with the help of respondents. Thanks to this approach, it will be completely clear what kind of people will take part in the study, and how many people will the future sample consist of.
Depending on the scale of the research work, the group of “subjects” includes from twenty to a thousand. Bulk groups, as a rule, take place in studies concerning specific nations and countries. But for marketing, social studies, or a psychologist, they typically recruit up to 50 people. This is due to the inconvenience of processing large amounts of data, and the fewer people to study, the easier it will be.
Designate sample type for research. They, in turn, are divided into:
- Random, when a poll is selected on the basis of a statistical case.
- Samples with system selection.
- Quota. In this case, a single survey is selected in parts, taking into account the structure of the main aggregates.
- Route samples. In this type, random apartments, house and telephone numbers, geographical location are selected.
- Nesting samples - direct selection of specific groups.
- The sample of the main array, when the study recruited up to 80% of the society of interest.
You should also clearly define the categories of respondents. For example, in marketing research, the choice of participants will depend on the following criteria:
- These may be regular users or owners of the product under investigation. Such people are able to articulate clearly why they chose a particular product for themselves - to talk about its qualities, characteristics, shortcomings, and so on.
- Users of the product, which is not subject to research, but belongs to the group of the investigated market. For example, the laundry detergent “Tide” is being investigated, and Ariel lovers are invited to the study.As a rule, this group is asked about the shortcomings of the product chosen by them, what prompted them to abandon the product under investigation, and so on. Subsequently, such information helps in adjusting the goods for the buyer.
- People who fall into the category of potential users. As a rule, such a sample is made before introducing a specific product into the market.
- Those who have never used the investigated product and are not going to do it. When working with such people, the emphasis is on the opportunity to convince the group to abandon its principles.
Anyway, answering the question how to make a sample, it is extremely important to adjust the participants of the process so that they correspond to the basic necessary parameters of the studied group of society: age, income, specific status, gender, education, and so on. Otherwise, the study will not be considered correct, and the results will be reliable.