How to make beads?
Beads - one of the oldest human ornaments. Want to know what and how to make beads? The first beads were made of clay, forming them directly on a thread or on a wire threaded through a straw. During roasting, the thread or straw burned, and the beads with holes remained. The technology of making beads from ceramics has not changed in our time. They are still molded on a thread, they only make this automaton and are fired in a muffle furnace, after which the beads are doused with glaze.
- Wooden beads - beads are turned on special machines, after which a hole is drilled in each bead.
- Beads from semi-precious stones are also cut from stone, and a hole is drilled in each of them separately.
- Metallic beads - previously cast from precious metals in special forms and manually made holes. But the beads made of metal are very heavy and were gradually replaced with glass, which was made of a glass tube, which was superimposed with the thinnest layer of gold or silver, and a larger tube was put on top. The resulting composite tube was cut into pieces-beads, which had the brilliance of gold, but weighed much less and cost less.This metallic luster glass bead is produced by coating with enamel or metal salts ready-made glass or plastic beads.
However, most often beads are made of glass. There are several technologies for its manufacture.
- Blown beads .- For the manufacture of two metal sticks are taken. The tip of one scooped up some amount of glass, and the tip of the second stick pulled out a thin glass thread or core, which was subsequently cut and used to make beads.
- Twisted beads. The glass rod was melted and wound on a wire. After that the wire heats up and the glass wound on it spreads, forming a sheath around the wire. After cooling, the wire is compressed and the bead blank is easily removed.
- Exhaust beads are made by pulling a glass tube with a cavity inside. The finished tube is cut into pieces-beads.
- Braided beads - wire is woven with hot glass thread.
- Pressed beads - the shape of the beads is attached using a press or special pressing tongs.
- Spiral beads - hot glass threads wound on a wirein a spiral.
- Baked beads - beads are made of glass powder, which is poured into a mold and sintered.
The tubules are cut into pieces and receive oblong, so-called chopped beads. If the beads are needed round, it, along with the image, is loaded into a special drum. During rotation and heating, the beads melt and grind to a spherical shape. Subsequently, the beads are washed from the shape and, if necessary, covered with glaze.
All these methods are used and now to get handmade beads. In industrial production, special machines are used to make beads by stamping. This allows you to automate the process and get high-quality beads of the desired size and shape.
However, nowadays the most popular is plastic beads. The technology of its production is the same as glass, only the temperature for manufacturing is somewhat lower than glass. In the artisanal manufacture of plastic beads, the method of wrapping a strip of plastic on a wire is used. Such beads are easily recognizable by a thin barely visible line that remains on the side of the bead.
It is plastic beads - the easiest of all, most often used in beadwork, knitting and embroidery, which recently recently became widespread. We told you how to make beads.