How to make electrical wiring in the house?
In the modern world it is impossible to imagine life in a house without electricity. In order to connect your household appliances to the network, you need to do quite a lot of work: lay the cable, make its wiring, lay the grounding, install sockets and switches. This article will tell you how to make wiring in the house.
Selection and installation of switches
Typically, switch housings are made of ceramic or plastic (cheaper options). They are also divided by type of installation: invoices - for open wiring, and embedded - for flush wiring. Which option to choose depends on the method of laying the wire and on the funds allocated for repairs.
In addition, there are switches with various additional functions:
- Automatic switching on and off lighting with a timer;
- Smooth adjustment of the brightness of the light;
- Turn off the light in one room with its synchronous inclusion in the second;
- Indicator light that controls the presence of current in the network;
- Chemical and moisture resistant enclosures for bathrooms and environments with poor environments.
In order to install a switch, it is necessary to branch the wire to the place of its future location. If the switch of the consignment note, it is enough to enter into it the wire coming from the shield, the tips of which two conductors should be cleaned. After that, these wires should be clamped in the corresponding clamps with the help of bolts. It is also necessary to clamp the wire leading to the lamp, pre-tightening its end into the switch housing. If the switch is built in, then apart from all these actions, it is necessary to prepare for it also a recess in the wall into which it will be installed.
How to choose and install an outlet?
In addition, how to do the wiring correctly, you also need to properly connect and install sockets. Sockets come in various variations:
- Under the euro plug (with grounding);
- Under the usual plug;
- With an ejector for the plug (the plug is removed by pressing a button near the outlet);
- With ceramic and plastic base.
But they all connect to the power supply in the same way:
- It is necessary to strip two wires of the wire (for a regular socket) or three wires (for a euro socket, the ground is a yellow-green wire).
- If the socket is external, you must thread the wire into the case; if built-in, then leaving a small margin of supply, lead the wire into the mounting box for the outlet.
- Unscrew the clips and insert the stripped ends of the wires into them.
- Tighten the bolts on the clips.
- Install the socket in the box and tighten the mounting bolt. If it is not there, you need to press the socket into the box until it clicks.
Before you make the wiring, let's solve another important question: how to choose light bulbs? At the moment, LED lamps are considered to be the most ideal option, because their efficiency is several times higher than incandescent filament lamps, and electricity consumption drops tenfold. But one such 10-watt light bulb (100-watt analog with a filament) costs about 1,500 rubles, but the manufacturing plant in most cases gives them a 10-year warranty. A more likely competitor of these lamps for domestic consumers are fluorescent lamps, they are quite cheap and consume a little more LED.If you lay the wiring under incandescent bulbs, then it is better that its cross section was about 1.5 - 2.0 mm, and if for LED, then with a margin there will be enough section of 0.7 mm.
When all the additional elements are selected, let's talk about cable entry into the building.
Cable routing to a private house
In order to bring the cable to the house, it is necessary to make a hole in its foundation, into which it is necessary to lead an asbestos-cement or plastic pipe with a diameter twice the diameter of the cable. This pipe should be laid under a small inclination into a trench (which should be dug 0.6 meters from the foundation), going to the meter (which is installed by the appropriate service on a pole or outside the building).
Next, we thread the cable into the pipe and seal it with a mixture of gypsum and perlite or compound.
Calculation and installation of electrical locker
The power cable entry further goes to the electrical cabinet in which the packet switch is installed. Its capacity is calculated taking into account the amount of power of household appliances, to which is added from 20% to 30%.
This device is designed to automatically turn off in an emergency, but it can also be turned off manually.As shields, metal or plastic cabinets are usually used with an IP protection standard of 20 for rooms and from IP 44 for external placement. Inside the cabinet must be rails for attaching the “bag”.
Wire routing indoors
If you decide to learn how to do electrical wiring with your own hands around the house or apartment, then this section is for you.
It is quite simple to calculate the amount of wire needed for installation. For a house or apartment of about 150 m2You will need about 300 meters of wire. It is possible to determine the exact number by making detailed marking of switches, lamps and sockets on the horizontal plan of the building. In accordance with the SNiP, one outlet must be at least 6 meters2. The sockets are combined into separate groups, like switches, and each is connected to its own "automatic". The wire cross-section for connecting the socket should be 2.5 mm. for every 4 kW of power consumed. It is also advisable to put on 2 "machine" for each room (one for lighting and one for sockets). It is quite easy to figure out how to make the wiring in the apartment, because it differs little from that in the house. The main difference is that the consumption of electricity in the apartment is much less.
Which wire is better to choose?
We almost figured out how to make the wiring yourself, it remains only to determine the necessary wires. For any fixed wiring, single-wire two-core copper wire is best. But for connecting boilers, baths with hydromassage, washing machines and electric heating it is better to use three-core wires.