What is a monarchy?
We all know that there are various forms of government, including the monarchy. And what is a monarchy, and how, for example, does the power of the English queen differ from the power of the Omani sultan? We will try to tell you in detail about this.
Monarchy: what is it?
Monarchy is one of the forms of government in which the supreme power in it partially or fully belongs (formally or real) to the monarch - the sole head of this state. A monarch (sultan, shah, emperor, king, king, etc.) usually receives power by inheritance and rules for life.
Based on the above definition, we can distinguish the following main features of the monarchy:
- The supreme power in the state belongs to one person;
- This power is obtained and transmitted by inheritance, according to the principle of blood;
- Power belongs to the monarch for life;
- The monarch personifies the historical continuity, unity of the nation, traditions and represents his country in the international arena.
Even in those countries where the power of the monarch is limited by the constitution and he does not actually govern the country, he is still the personification of the supreme state power.
Types of monarchy
In terms of restrictions, the monarchy is divided into several types: absolute, constitutional, parliamentary, and dualistic.
What is absolute monarchy?
Under an absolute monarchy, the power of the monarch is unlimited. All authorities are subordinate to him The states with absolute monarchy are Qatar, Oman, the principality of the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia.
What is constitutional monarchy?
With this form of government, the power of the monarch is limited to the constitution, traditions or unwritten rules. Constitutional monarchy, in turn, is divided into two forms:
- Parliamentary monarchy. In this form of monarchy, the monarch performs a representative function and does not have real power. The government is subordinated to the parliament, and not to the formal head of state — the monarch. Currently, the states with parliamentary monarchy are Sweden, Denmark, United Kingdom.
- Dualistic monarchy. This is a special kind of constitutional monarchy, in which the power of the monarch is limited to both parliament and the constitution. The monarch has the right to freely make independent decisions within the framework provided to him.This form of government is currently available in Liechtenstein, Monaco, Kuwait, Jordan, Morocco.
Advantages and disadvantages of the monarchy
Monarchy, as a form of government, has the following advantages:
- From early childhood, the monarch is brought up as the future head of state. It develops the necessary qualities of character.
- The change of power is not influenced by the interests of some individuals. This ensures that the person for whom it is an end in itself will not come to power.
- Any monarch wants to leave his heirs (son, daughter) a strong, prosperous state.
- The monarchy ensures the unity of power, and therefore makes it more durable.
- The position of the monarch is much higher than the position of any party. And therefore the monarch is not a biased political figure.
- The monarchy provides the best conditions for long-term reforms.
- After the death of the monarch is always known his successor, which significantly reduces the risk of political upheaval.
The disadvantages of the monarchy are:
- The monarch is not responsible to anyone for the decisions made.This may lead to the adoption of erroneous decisions that do not meet the interests of the country.
- A monarch can become a person who is unable to fully manage the state, for example, a child.
- The monarch is largely dependent on their environment.
- The death of a monarch who has no children can lead to the development of a severe political crisis in the country.
- The position of the monarch over the law makes the entire population dependent on the will of their ruler, in fact, without rights.