What is a morpheme?

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What is a morpheme?

In elementary school, we all studied Russian. In the course of morphology, the teacher talked about what a morpheme is. The term "morpheme" was introduced into science by Russian-Polish linguist Ivan Alexandrovich Boduen de Courtenay. The word "morpheme" is derived from the Greek "morphe" - "form".

What is a morpheme? A morpheme is the smallest dependent unit of language. A morpheme performs two main functions: it serves to form new words and also to form word forms (for example, case forms of the word: table, table, table�, on table �)

Morphemes can be mandatory (roots) and optional (affixes).

The root is the significant part of the word. Without a root, with rare exceptions, the word itself does not exist. A word can consist only of a root or of a root and affixes. For example, the word "nose" consists of a root, the word "nose" consists of a root and a suffix.

An affix is an auxiliary part of a word. Affixes cannot independently form a new word (at least in Russian), they join the root. Together with the roots, they form new words or forms of words.Affixes can clarify or complement the meaning of the root, for example, "goat" - the suffix "monok" indicates that it is not a goat, but its cub.

Affixes are divided by their position relative to the root of the word. For example, they may be located in front of the root - prefixes. In Russian, prefixes are also called prefixes: Arrived, Cover, Bite, etc. Morphemes that are after the root of a word are called postfixes or suffixes. They perform various functions in the language. For example, words formed with the help of suffixes: stoolChIK, mason, light, etc.

There are also inflections or endings, in Russian they are postfixes. The endings are word-changing postfixes and indicate the connection of a word with other members of a sentence. For example, you, you, with toba, etc. Flexions change in a phrase, providing coordination of all members of the proposal: on a wide road, on a wide road, wide road, wide road.

So, as we see, the morpheme is a very important component of the language. Not only philologists and linguists, but also everyone who really loves their native language should have an idea of what a morpheme is.