Who are the separatists?
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Including the TV in the evening to watch the news release, we can often hear about various separatist movements in different parts of the world. But how often do we think about what kind of movement it is and what the word "separatism" itself means? Who are the separatists and what do they want?
The definition of separatism
Separatism is a policy of separation and separation. The goal of separatism is to separate a certain territory from a certain state in order to establish a new, independent and sovereign, or to obtain the rights of broad autonomy, but at the same time remain within the country to which the chosen territory belongs. In fact, separatism is the desire of the inhabitants of any region of a particular country to live independently and independently. The reasons for the emergence of such sentiments may be several:
- For ethnic reasons - a certain ethnic group has been living in a certain territory for many years, which wants to return independence to its region or to become part of another country.A striking example of ethnic separatism can be seen in Ireland, Iraq, Iran, Turkey and many other countries.
- For religious reasons, this phenomenon is observed when a certain region that is attached to a country has completely different religious views. An example of religious separatism can be observed in India, namely in its northern state of Jammu and Kashmir. The local ethnic population that adheres to Islam has been living in this region for many years. The roots of this confrontation go back to the distant 1846, when, as a result of the first Anglo-Sikh war, the government of the Indian dynasty was established in the region. That is, the population adhering to Islam, has a new Hindu government. Religious separatism can also arise when there are disagreements between different faiths of the same religion. Thus, in Ireland, separatist sentiments are caused not only by ethnic reasons, but also by differences between the Catholic Church and Protestants.
- Separatist sentiments can flare up among certain ethnic groups or the population of certain regions if their human rights are grossly violated.
Separatism can be of several kinds: peaceful, armed, and political.
- Under peaceful separatism, the population of the region holds regular meetings with demands on the authorities to recognize the independence of their region. With this kind of separatism usually rarely comes to some kind of conflict between the separatists and the authorities.
- There is also armed separatism, when people try to defend the independence of their region through armed confrontation. This type of separatism is the most undesirable both for the country from which the region wants to secede and for the region itself, since armed conflicts always lead to a collapse of the economy and the partial or complete destruction of the region’s infrastructure. But the worst thing is the death of people.
- Political separatism - certain political parties or organizations are in favor of secession and recognition of the independence of a region. Examples of political separatism can be observed in Spain. For the independence of Catalonia, Andalusia, Galicia, the Basque country and many other regions fighting a huge number of political parties and organizations.
In more detail with the concept of separatism can be found in the article - What is separatism.
Who is a separatist?
Knowing the definition of the term "separatism" we can conclude that a separatist is a person who fights for the idea of independence of his historical, ethnic homeland, defends the rights of his ethnic group or religious views.
A separatist can be any person who consciously supports the ideology of separating his region from a certain state, seeking its independence, world recognition, or granting broad autonomy to its region.
With armed separatism, it is not necessary to attribute terrorists to the definition of "separatist", since the former engage in destructive activities for their own purposes, while separatists resort to military opposition only in extreme cases.
The impact of separatism in the country
On the one hand, the right to self-determination is welcomed by the international community and guaranteed by many countries of the world. On the other hand, the exit of a certain region from a country can be a strong blow to the economy both for the country itself and for the region with which it desired independence. In this case, recognition of the rights of broad autonomy for the region becomes an acceptable option, but it remains part of a specific state.
Do not forget about changing state borders.Separatism negatively affects the general geopolitical picture of the world; therefore, some countries and regions are still not recognized by the world community.
Moreover, separatism often leads to the emergence of various terrorist movements. Or the terrorists themselves hide behind the ideas of separatism. The emergence of terrorism is facilitated by armed separatism. And naturally, this negatively affects both the country itself and the region that wants independence.