XIX - what is the century?
According to the Gregorian calendar, the nineteenth (XIX) century lasted from 1801 to 1900 inclusive. Let's talk about how the XIX century was, let's dwell on the main events of this era.
Key events of the XIX century
- Urbanization - the process of increasing the importance of cities in the life of society. As a rule, unprecedented growth of industry within cities served as a catalyst for urbanization.
- Industrial revolution or industrialization is the process of transition from traditional (agricultural) economic development to industrial production, mainly due to technical and scientific progress.
- The growth of colonies in different parts of the globe.
- The heyday of culture, literature, painting, which in the history of art and literature was called the "Golden Age". A big breakthrough in the field of art should be noted in the Russian Empire. The great Russian poet A.S. Pushkin is considered to be the main figure of the “Golden Age” of Russian literature and literature. He made a great contribution to Russian poetry - became a reformer of the artistic language.
Specific historical events of the century
The nineteenth century is rich in historical events that changed the world and entailed fundamental changes in society, politics and the economy of many countries. Consider the main ones.
- In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire fell. It was a union of many European countries. The reason for the collapse and division of parts of the empire between the victorious countries was the Russian-Austro-French war of 1805. Austria, Britain and Russia suffered a serious defeat during the fighting.
- The Patriotic War of 1812 with Napoleon, which greatly increased the growth of the national consciousness of the people of the Russian Empire.
- Napoleonic wars of 1803-1815.
- Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Two years of the hardest battles that took the lives of thousands of Russian soldiers were crowned with a well-deserved victory of the Russian Empire and the signing of the Adrianople Peace Treaty. One of the most important points of the peace treaty was Russia's trade access to the Black Sea Straits.
- 1861 - the abolition of serfdom in the Russian Empire by decree of Emperor Alexander II.